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Theology Thursdays: Confessing Christ in a World of Violence


Sojourners is a Christian ministry whose mission is to proclaim and practice the Biblical call to integrate spiritual renewal and social justice. The following statement was endorsed by more than 200 Christian theologians and ethicists. It appears on the Sojourners website.


Our world is wracked with violence and war. But Jesus said: "Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called the children of God" (Matt. 5:9). Innocent people, at home and abroad, are increasingly threatened by terrorist attacks. But Jesus said: "Love your enemies, pray for those who persecute you" (Matt. 5:44). These words, which have never been easy, seem all the more difficult today.

Nevertheless, a time comes when silence is betrayal. How many churches have heard sermons on these texts since the terrorist atrocities of September 11? Where is the serious debate about what it means to confess Christ in a world of violence? Does Christian "realism" mean resigning ourselves to an endless future of "pre-emptive wars"? Does it mean turning a blind eye to torture and massive civilian casualties? Does it mean acting out of fear and resentment rather than intelligence and restraint?

Faithfully confessing Christ is the church's task, and never more so than when its confession is co-opted by militarism and nationalism.

- A "theology of war," emanating from the highest circles of American government, is seeping into our churches as well.

- The language of "righteous empire" is employed with growing frequency.

- The roles of God, church, and nation are confused by talk of an American "mission" and "divine appointment" to "rid the world of evil."

The security issues before our nation allow no easy solutions. No one has a monopoly on the truth. But a policy that rejects the wisdom of international consultation should not be baptized by religiosity. The danger today is political idolatry exacerbated by the politics of fear.

In this time of crisis, we need a new confession of Christ.

1. Jesus Christ, as attested in Holy Scripture, knows no national boundaries. Those who confess his name are found throughout the earth. Our allegiance to Christ takes priority over national identity. Whenever Christianity compromises with empire, the gospel of Christ is discredited.

We reject the false teaching that any nation-state can ever be described with the words, "the light shines in the darkness and the darkness has not overcome it." These words, used in scripture, apply only to Christ. No political or religious leader has the right to twist them in the service of war.

2. Christ commits Christians to a strong presumption against war. The wanton destructiveness of modern warfare strengthens this obligation. Standing in the shadow of the Cross, Christians have a responsibility to count the cost, speak out for the victims, and explore every alternative before a nation goes to war. We are committed to international cooperation rather than unilateral policies.

We reject the false teaching that a war on terrorism takes precedence over ethical and legal norms. Some things ought never be done - torture, the deliberate bombing of civilians, the use of indiscriminate weapons of mass destruction - regardless of the consequences.

3. Christ commands us to see not only the splinter in our adversary's eye, but also the beam in our own. The distinction between good and evil does not run between one nation and another, or one group and another. It runs straight through every human heart.

We reject the false teaching that America is a "Christian nation," representing only virtue, while its adversaries are nothing but vicious. We reject the belief that America has nothing to repent of, even as we reject that it represents most of the world's evil. All have sinned and fallen short of the glory of God (Rom 3:23).

4. Christ shows us that enemy-love is the heart of the gospel. While we were yet enemies, Christ died for us (Rom. 5:8, 10). We are to show love to our enemies even as we believe God in Christ has shown love to us and the whole world. Enemy-love does not mean capitulating to hostile agendas or domination. It does mean refusing to demonize any human being created in God's image.

We reject the false teaching that any human being can be defined as outside the law's protection. We reject the demonization of perceived enemies, which only paves the way to abuse; and we reject the mistreatment of prisoners, regardless of supposed benefits to their captors.

5. Christ teaches us that humility is the virtue befitting forgiven sinners. It tempers all political disagreements, and it allows that our own political perceptions, in a complex world, may be wrong.

We reject the false teaching that those who are not for the United States politically are against it or that those who fundamentally question American policies must be with the "evil-doers." Such crude distinctions, especially when used by Christians, are expressions of the Manichaean heresy, in which the world is divided into forces of absolute good and absolute evil.

The Lord Jesus Christ is either authoritative for Christians, or he is not. His Lordship cannot be set aside by any earthly power. His words may not be distorted for propagandistic purposes. No nation-state may usurp the place of God.

We believe that acknowledging these truths is indispensable for followers of Christ. We urge them to remember these principles in making their decisions as citizens. Peacemaking is central to our vocation in a troubled world where Christ is Lord.



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Signers as of October 22, 2004. Institutions for identification only.

Name
Organization
Title

Adam, A.K.M. Seabury-Western Theological Seminary Professor of New Testament
Alexander, Dr. Paul Pentecostal Peace Fellowship/Southwestern Assemblies of God University President/Associate Professor of Bible and Theology
Amerson, Philip Claremont School of Theology President
Arichea, Jr, Daniel C. Duke Divinity School and UMC Bishop in Residence
Arnold, Johann Christoph, Sr. The Bruderhof Elder
Augsburger, David Fuller Theological Seminary Professor of Pastoral Care and Counseling
Augsburger, Dr. Myron S. Eastern Mennonite University President Emeritus
Bader-Saye, Scott University of Scranton Associate Professor of Theology and Ethics
Baker, Mark D. Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary Assistant professor of Mission and Theology
Balch, David Brite Divinity School, Texas Christian University Professor of New Testament
Balmer, Randall Barnard College, Columbia University Ann Whitney Olin Professor of American Religion
Balswick, Jack Fuller Theological Seminary Professor of Sociology and Family Development
Barrett, Lois Assoc. Mennonite Biblical Seminary Director, Great Plains Extension
Bartlett, Dr. Anthony W. Wood Hath Hope Bible Community Founder
Batastini, Robert J. GIA Publications Senior Editor
Batstone, David University of San Francisco Professor of Ethics
Battle, Rev. Michael, PhD Duke University Professor and Episcopal Priest
Beach-Verhey, Timothy Davidson College Director of Programs for the Theological Exploration of Vocation
Bezilla, Rev. Gregory The Episcopal Campus Ministry at Rutgers Chaplain
Black, Clifton Princeton Theological Seminary Professor of Biblical Theology
Bonk, Dr. Jonathan J. Overseas Ministry Study Center Executive Director
Borgman, Paul Gordon College Professor
Bouma-Prediger, Dr. Steven Hope College Jacobson Professor of Religion
Branson, Mark Lau Fuller Theological Seminary Associate Professor
Brawley, Robert L. McCormick Theological Seminary Albert C. McGaw Professor of New Testament
Brock, Brian University of Aberdeen Lecturer in Practical Theology
Brown, Colin Fuller Theological Seminary Professor of Systematic Theology
Brubacher, Ray Mennonite World Conference Associate Executive Secretary for Events and Administration
Bruner, Frederick Fuller Theological Seminary Adjunct Faculty
Brunk, III, George R. Eastern Mennonite Seminary Professor of New Testament
Buckley, Jim Loyola College Professor of Theology
Bullon, Dr. H. Fernando Latin American Theological Fraternity—Costa Rica Chapter President
Burnette, Carole C., PhD Ecumenical Institute of Theology Professor of Ancient and Medieval Christianity
Butler, Dr. Anthea Loyola Marymount University President, Society for Pentecostal Studies and Assistant Professor of Theology
Butler, James Fuller Theological Seminary Associate Professor of Old Testament
Campbell, Douglas A. Duke Divinity School Assistant Professor in New Testament
Campolo, Tony Eastern University Professor of Sociology
Candler, The Very Rev. Samuel G. Dean of the Cathedral The Cathedral of St. Philip
Carmer, Gregory W. Gordon College Dean of the Chapel
Casey, Shaun Wesley Theological Seminary Assistant Professor of Christian Ethics
Chancey, Mark A. Southern Methodist University Assistant Professor of Religious Studies
Chapman, Stephen Duke Divinity School Ass. Prof. Old Testament
Chittister, Joan, OSB Benetvision Writer
Clark, Chapman Fuller Theological Seminary Associate Professor of Youth, Family, and Culture
Copan, Victor, Th.D. Palm Beach Atlantic University’s School of Ministry Associate Professor of Ministry
Crane, Richard Messiah College Professor
Crenshaw, James L. Duke Divinity School Professor of Old Testament
Davis, Derek H. Baylor University Director, J.M. Dawson Institute of Church-State Studies
Davis, Ellen F. Duke Divinity School Professor of Bible and Practical Theology
Davis, Dr. Lant B. Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary Assistant to the President
De La Torre, Dr. Miguel A. Hope College Professor of Religion
DeCrane, Susanne M., PhD College of Notre Dame of Maryland Associate Faculty
Dewey, Brett R. Baylor University Teaching Fellow
Donahue, Prof. John R., SJ St. Mary’s Seminary and University Raymond E. Brown Professor Emeritus of New Testament Studies
Dorn, Jacob H. Wright State University
Dueck, Dr. Alvin Fuller Theological Seminary Evelyn and Frank Freed Professor of the Integration of Psychology and Theology
Dunn, Rev. Dr. James M. Wake Forest Univ. Divinity School Professor of Christianity and Public Policy
Eastman, Rev. Dr. Susan Grove Duke Divinity School Assistant Professor of the Practice of Bible and Christian Formation
Elwood, Christopher Louisville Pres. Theo. Seminary Professor of Historical Theology
Epp, Robert C. UCLA Professor Emeritus
Erdman, Chris The Biblical Seminary Professor of Preaching and Missional Leadership
Esbenshade, Wade Penn State University Researcher
Evans, C. Stephen Baylor University Prof. Philosophy and Humanities
Fackre, Gabriel Andover Newton Theological School Abbot Professor of Christian Theology Emeritus
Faramelli, Norman Boston University School of Theology Lecturer in Social Ethics
Ferree-Clark, Rev. Nancy Duke University Chapel Pastor
Fisher, Mary Elizabeth Asbury Theological Seminary Formerly Ass’t. Professor of Biblical Theology
Fisk, Bruce N. Westmont College Ass. Prof. Religious Studies
Fletcher, Andy International Communities Foundation Executive Director
Fowl, Stephen Loyola College in Maryland Professor of Theology
Fredrickson, Kurt Fuller Theological Seminary Assistant Professor
Freeman, Curtis W. Duke Divinity School Professor of Theology and Baptist Studies
Fretheim, Terence Luther Seminary Elva B. Lovell Professor of Old Testament
Friesen, Dr. John J. Canadian Mennonite University Professor of History and Theology
Fulkerson, Rev. Dr. Mary McClintock Duke University (Divinity School) Associate Professor of Theology
Garrettson, Dr. Charles The Hill School Educator
Geddert, Dr. Timothy J. Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary Associate Professor of New Testament
George, Ivy Gordon College Professor
Gill, David W. Ethixbiz.com Writer
Gloer, W. Huitt Baylor University Professor of Preaching
Goering, Lisa M. North Carolina State University Post-Doctoral Fellow
Gorman, Michael J. St. Mary’s Seminary and University Dean and Professor of New Testament
Gouwens, David J. Brite Divinity School, Texas Christian University Interim Dean and Professor of Theology
Grieb, Rev. Dr. A. Katherine Virginia Theological Seminary Associate Professor of New Testament
Guenther, Dr. Titus Canadian Mennonite University Associate Professor of Theology and Missions
Gutenson, Charles E. Asbury Theological Seminary Associate Professor of Philosophical Theology and Associate Dean for Distributed Learning
Hagner, Donald Fuller Theological Seminary George Eldon Ladd Professor of New Testament
Hall, Rev. Dr. Amy Laura Duke Divinity School/SW Texas UMC Assistant Professor of Theological Ethics
Harrison, Nina St. Vincent de Paul Society Executive Director
Harvard, Susan The Hill School Educator
Harvey, Barry Baylor University Associate Professor of Theology
Hart, John Boston University School of Theology Professor of Christian Ethics
Hauerwas, Stanley Duke Divinity School Prof. Theological Ethics
Hawkins, Peter S. Boston University Prof. Religion
Hays, Richard Duke Divinity School Prof. New Testament
Henderson, Susan Watts, PhD Salem College Assistant Professor of Religion
Henrich, Sarah S. Luther Seminary Assoc. Prof. New Testament
Hess, Mary E. Luther Seminary Assistant Professor of Educational Leadership
Heun, Dr. Matthew Calvin College Professor
Hinkle, Mary E. Luther Seminary Assoc. Prof. New Testament
Hinrichs, Andrew T. University of New Mexico MBA student/Wheaton alum 2000
Hollar, Barry Penn Shenandoah University Professor of Religion
Holleman, Connie United Church of Christ
Holleman, Toby UCC Penn Northeast Conference Associate Conference Minister
Holloway, Jeph East Texas Baptist University Assoc. Prof. Theology and Ethics
Hough, Jr., Joseph C. Union Theological Seminary President of the Faculty and William E. Dodge Professor of Social Ethics
Hughes, Richard T. Pepperdine University Distinguished Professor of Religion
Hunsinger, Deborah van Deusen Princeton Theological Seminary Associate Professor of Pastoral Theology
Hunsinger, George Princeton Theological Seminary Professor of Systematic Theology
Hunter, George Asbury Theological Seminary Distinguished Professor of Evangelization
Hurley, Elizabeth Lancaster Literary Guild Director
Hurst, Brenda Martin Eastern Mennonite Seminary Assistant Professor of Practical Theology
Hutson, Christopher R. Hood Theological Seminary Associate Professor of New Testament
Isaak, Jon Mark Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary Associate Professor of New Testament
Japinga, Dr. Lynn Hope College Associate Professor of Religion
Johnson, Dr. William Stacy Princeton Theological Seminary Assoc. Prof. Systematic Theology
Johnson, Rev. Janeen Bertsche Assoc. Mennonite Biblical Seminary Campus Pastor
Johnson, Robert E. Central Baptist Theological Seminary Assoc. Prof. Church Hist. & Miss.
Johnston, Dr. Robert Fuller Theological Seminary face="Arial">Professor of Theology and Culture
Jordan, Rev. Laurel Macaulay Middlebury College Chaplain of the College
Keller, Dr. Catherine Drew University, The Theological School Professor of Constructive Theology
Kenneson, Philip D. Milligan College Associate Professor of Theology and Philosophy
Kernaghan, Ron Fuller Theological Seminary Director of Office of Presbyterian Ministries
Klassen, Joane Recovery of Hope Counseling Director
Kolden, Marc Luther Seminary Professor of Systematic Theology
Koontz, Gayle Gerber Assoc. Mennonite Biblical Seminary Professor of Theology and Ethics
Koontz, Ted Assoc. Mennonite Biblical Seminary Professor of Ethics and Peace Studies
Kraus, C. Norman Goshen College Prof. Emeritus
Kraybill, J. Nelson Assoc. Mennonite Biblical Seminary President
Kreider, Alan Assoc. Mennonite Biblical Seminary Associate Professor of Church History and Mission
Kuperus, Tracy, PhD Calvin College Adjunct Professor of Political Science
La Barge, Karen Fitz WITNESS Executive Director
Lancaster, Sarah Heaner Methodist Theological School in Ohio Associate Professor of Theology, Bishop Hazen G. Werner Chair
Lanci, Dr. John R. Stonehill College Associate Professor of Religious Studies
Langan, John SJ Georgetown University Joseph Cardinal Bernardin Professor of Catholic Social Thought
Lapsley, Jacqueline Princeton Theological Seminary Associate Professor of Old Testament
Laytham, D. Brent North Park Theological Seminary Associate Professor of Theology and Ethics
Leith, Mary Joan Winn Stonehill College Associate Professor of Religious Studies
Leonard, Dr. Bill Wake Forest University Dean of the Divinity School and Professor of Church History
Lesniewski, Jacob Mennonite Central Committee Community Development Worker
Lesniewski, Sarah Mennonite Central Committee Community Development Worker
Lowe, Walter Emory University (Candler School) Professor of Systematic Theology
Lundblad, Barbara K. Union Theological Seminary Joe R. Engle Associate Professor of Preaching
Lyden, John Dana College Professor and Chair of Religion
Malcolm, Lois Luther Seminary Associate Professor of Systematic Theology
Martens, Elmer Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary Professor Emeritus of Old Testament
Martinez, Juan Fuller Seminary Director of Hispanic Church Studies Program
McFague, Dr. Sallie Vancouver School of Theology, Vancouver, BC Distinguished Theologian in Residence
McFarland, Ian A. University of Aberdeen Senior Lecturer in Systematic Theology
McGarvey, Rev. Will Community Presbyterian Church Pastor
McGoldrick, Doug Columbia College, Chicago Part Time Faculty
McKelway, Alexander J. Davidson College Paul B. Freeland Professor of Religion Emeritus
McLaren, Brian Mars Hill Graduate School Adjunct Professor
Middleton, J. Richard Roberts Wesleyan College Associate Professor of Biblical Studies
Mikoski, Gordon S. Princeton Theological Seminary Instructor in Christian Education
Miller, Charles William University of North Dakota Associate Professor and Chair of Department of Philosophy and Religion
Miller, Patrick D. Princeton Theological Seminary Professor of Old Testament Theology
Moore-Keish, Martha Columbia Theological Seminary Assistant Professor of Theology
Moulder, Wiliam J. Trinity College Professor of New Testament
Murphy, Nancey Fuller Theological Seminary Professor of Christian Philosophy
Mustol, John S. Bethel Seminary San Diego Teaching Assistant
Nash, James A. Professor of Christian Ethics, Retired
Nordling, Cherith Fee Calvin College Adjunct Professor of Systematic Theology
O’Brien, J. Randall Baylor University Professor and Chair, Dept. of Religion
Ollenburger, Bob,PhD Assoc. Mennonite Biblical Seminary Professor of Biblical
Olson, Dennis Princeton Theological Seminary Professor of Old Testament
Olson, Roger E. Baylor University Prof. Theology
Osmer, Rick Princeton Theological Seminary
Padgett, Alan G. Luther Seminary Prof. Systematic Theology
Padilla, Catherine F. Kairos Foundation Professor of Bible
Padilla, Rene Kairos Foundation President Emeritus
Padilla DeBorst, Ruth Latin American Theological Fraternity President
Pallmeyer, Paul H. Evangelical Lutheran Church in America Retired Director for Evangelism for the ALC
Pasquarello, Dr. Michael Asbury Theological Seminary Ass. Prof. Practical Theology
Paul, Rev. Dr. Arthur Assoc. Mennonite Biblical Seminary Ass. Prof. Pastor Theology
Payne, John B. Lancaster Theological Seminary Professor Emeritus of Church History
Peace, Richard Fuller Theological Seminary Professor of Evangelism and Spiritual Formation
Peterson, Dr. Rodney L. Boston Theological Institute Executive Director
Phelan, John E., Jr. North Park Theological Seminary President and Dean
Pierard, Dr. Richard V. Gordon College Stephen Phillips Professor of History
Placher, William C. Wabash College LaFollette Distinguished Professor in the Humanities
Powell, Jeff Duke Law and Divinity Schools Professor of Divinity
Prescott, Dr. Bruce Mainstream Oklahoma Baptists Executive Director
Racine-Jones, Kathryn Notre Dame de Namur University Campus Minister
Ramsey, Janet Luther Seminary Assoc. Prof. Congregational Care Leadership
Redekopp, Alf Mennonite Heritage Center Director
Reese, Dr. Boyd T. Eastern Mennonite University Director of Libraries
Reid, David W. Vital Theology Publisher
Rempel, John D. Assoc. Mennonite Biblical Seminary Ass. Prof. Historical Theology
Rensberger, David Interdenominational Theological Center Prof. New Testament
Riswold, Caryn Illinois Colege Assistant Professor of Religion
Rivera-Pagán, Luís N. Princeton Theological Seminary Henry Winters Luce Professor of Ecumenics
Roberts, Rev. Dr. Raymond R. Grace Presbyterian Church Pastor
Robinson, Elaine A. Brite Divinity School Assistant Professor or Theology and Methodist Studies
Rodriguez, Rev. Dr. Daniel R. McCormick Theological Seminary Professor Emeritus of Church History
Rogers, Eugene F., Jr. University of Virginia Associate Professor
Russell, Rev. Dr. Horace O. Eastern Baptist Theological Seminary Professor of Historical Theology (Ret.)
Rutledge, Rev. Fleming Pastor
Sadler, Dr. Rodney S., Jr. Union—PSCE at Charlotte Assistant Professor of Bible
Sanders, Cheryl J. Howard University Professor of Christian Ethics
Sawyer, James R. Jim Elliot School Lead Teacher / Ass’t. Administrator
Schmitz, Gladys School Sisters of Notre Dame, Mankato SSND
Schofield-Bodt, Rev. Dr. Brian Golden Hill United Methodist Church Pastor
Scholer, David Professor of New Testament
Scorgie,Dr. Glen G. Bethel Seminary San Diego Professor of Theology
Scott, Dr. Lindy Wheaton College Associate Professor of Spanish
Shank, David A. Mennonite Mission Network
Shank, Wilma Mennonite Mission Network
Shirley, Dr. Edward L. St. Edward’s University Department of Religious Studies
Shuman, Joel James King’s College Department of Theology
Shurden, Walter B. Mercer University Professor of Christianity and Executive Director of the Ctr. For Baptist Studies
Shuster, Marguerite Fuller Theological Seminary Professor of Preaching
Simmons, Morgan Garrett/Evangelical Seminary Retired Professor
Singletary, Rev. Dr. Jon E., MSW Baylor University School of Social Work Assistant Professor
Slessarev-Jamir, Helene Wheaton College Associate Professor of Politics and International Relations/Dir. Of Urban Studies
Smith, Dr. Robin Victorville Church of the Nazarene Senior Pastor
Sniegocki, John Xavier University Professor of Theology
Snodgras, Prof. Klyne North Park Theological Seminary Paul W. Brandel Professor of New Testament
Soards, Marion L. Louisville Presbyterian Theol. Sem. Professor of New Testament Studies
Sonderegger, Katherine Virginia Theological Seminary Professor
Stam, Doris Latin America Mission
Stam, Juan Latin American Mission & Nat’l. Univ. of Costa Rica
Stassen, Glen Fuller Theological Seminary Professor of Christian Ethics
Stauffer, Michael Wheaton College Associate Professor
Stubbs, David Western Theological Seminary Assistant Professor of Ethics and Theology
Swartley, Willard M. Assoc. Mennonite Biblical Seminary Prof. New Testament (Emeritus)
Swartzenruber, Dr. Elaine K. Wake Forest University Ass. Prof. Religion – Theology and Culture
Tankerlsey, Bruce East Texas Baptist University
Taylor, Mark Princeton Theological Seminary Prof. Theology and Culture
Teig, Dr. Mons A. Luther Seminary Professor of Worship
Thiemann, Ronald F. Harvard Divinity School Professor of Theology and Religion and Society
Thistlethwaite, Dr. Susan Chicago Theological Seminary President and Professor of Theology
Tobin, Mary Lynn David Community Church (PCUSA) Pastor
Tull, Rev. Dr. Patricia K. Louisville Presbyterian Seminary Professor of Old Testament
Utz, John Duke Divinity School Visiting Assistant Prof. of Lit. and Theology
Van Leeuwen, Raymond C. Eastern University Professor of Biblical Studies
Van Dyk, Dr. Leanne Western Theological Seminary Dean & Prof. Reformed Theology
van Huyssteen, J. Wentzel Princeton Theological Seminary James I. McCrod Professor of Theology and Science
Verhey, Dr. Allen Duke Divinity School Professor of Christian Ethics
Volf, Dr. Miroslav Yale University Henry B. Wright Professor of Systematic Theology and Director of Yale Center for Faith and Culture
Voth, Dr. Esteban United Bible Societies Translation Consultant
Wagener, Linda Fuller Theological Seminary SOP Assistant Dean
Wagner, Don North Park University, Chicago Professor
Wagner, J. Ross Princeton Theological Seminary Associate Professor of New Testament
Wallis, Jim Sojourners Editor
Weaver, Dorothy Jean Eastern Mennonite Seminary Professor of New Testament
West, Dr. Cornel Princeton University Professor of Religion
Westermeyer, Paul Luther Seminary Professor of Church Music
Wheeler, Sondra Wesley Theological Seminary Martha Ashby Carr Professor of Christian Ethics
Williams, Clifford Trinity College Professor of Philosophy
Williams, Dr. David Alan Taylor University College Academic Vice President, Professor of Philosophical Theology and Ethics
Willimon, Will Duke University Former Dean of the Chapel and Professor of Christian Ministry at Duke University
Wink, Johnny Ouachita Baptist University Professor
Wirzba, Norman Georgetown College Chair of Philosophy
Witherington, Dr. Ben Asbury Theological Seminary Professor of New Testament
Wood, Ralph C. Baylor University University Professor of Theology and Literature
Wylie-Kellerman, Bill S.C.U.P.E. Director of Graduate Theological Urban Studies
Yoder, Dr. Nathan E. Eastern Mennonite Seminary Associate Professor of Church History
Yoder, Perry Assoc. Mennonite Biblical Seminary Prof. Old Testament




Thursday, November 4, 2004

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